JA Introduction to Business and Technology 2

JA Introduction to Business and Technology<sup>™</sup> 2

JA Introduction to Business and Technology 2, part of the JA High School Experience courses, is a one-semester teacher-led course that introduces high school students to the basic skills necessary to succeed in business. Themes include personal skills like innovation, management functions, and accounting. Students also learn basic technical skills like how to use word processing, presentation software, and spreadsheets effectively. Volunteers engage with students through a variety of activities that includes subject matter guest speaking and coaching or advising for case study and project course work. 


Students will:

  • Learn the necessary concepts applicable to state and national educational standards.

  • Apply these standards-based concepts to the real world.

  • Synthesize elective concepts through cumulative, tangible deliverables (projects).

  • Analyze a business situation or principle through the use of a case study.

  • Demonstrate the skills necessary for future career pathway success.

Pillars of Student Success Entrepreneurship:  Financial-Literacy:  Work-Readiness: 
Program Implementation Program Grade-Level
Classroom-Based High School
Program Concepts Program Skills
Accounting, Accounting cycle, Accounting software, Analytics, Annual reports, Balance sheets, Cash flow, Customer analysis, Debits and credits, Development of a product or service, Digital marketing, Double entry accounting, Finance, Financial reporting, Financial statements, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Consistency, Income statements, Information organization, Ideation evaluation, Innovation, Interpersonal skills, Leadership plan, Leadership styles, Leadership traits, Marketing, Market analysis, Market research, Management skills, Objectives, Organization charts, Performance standards, Planning, Product, Product placement, Pricing, Profitability, SMART goals, Skepticism, Situational leadership, Surveys, Target market, The control process, The marketing mix, The 4 Ps, The finance cycle, The Ideation process, The accounting equation Analyze calculations, Analyze information, Analyze results, Analyze situations, Brainstorm ideas, Calculate accounting records, Compare traits, Complete a survey, Complete research, Consider a problem, Defend an opinion, Designate tasks, Develop objectives, Discuss in groups, Draw conclusions, Evaluate ideas, Evaluate information, Evaluate leadership traits, Gather information from potential customers, Identify a need, Make connections, Present information, Propose a solution, Record business transactions, Research information, Review case studies, Review information, Review innovations, Self-evaluate, Set SMART goals, Solve problems, Think creativity, Think critically, Vet ideas, Work in groups, Write and conduct a survey

Program Sessions

1.1 Types of Innovation


1.1 Types of Innovation

Students explore the history of innovation in society and technology. They also learn about the difference between modification and innovation and think about key principles of how innovation takes place.


Students will:

  • Describe the distinction between modifications and true innovations.

  • Identify important innovations throughout history in key areas of society.

  • Recognize some of the key principles of how innovations are brought about.

1.2 Identifying Needs


1.2 Identifying Needs

Students learn about the ways entrepreneurs innovate to fill market needs, often bringing their own passion and experience to bear to solve a problem or enhance lives.


Students will:

  • Use research tools to identify consumers' needs and wants.

  • Recognize opportunities resulting from other people's wants and perceived needs.

  • Identify potential solutions for social concerns.

1.3 Ideation


1.3 Ideation

Students explore the concept of ideation. They will learn about key principles of ideation, learn how to come up with and evaluate ideas through the ideation process, and practice applying ideation to a real-world scenario.


Students will:

  • Learn key principles of the ideation process.

  • Use the ideation process to develop potential solutions to real-world problems.

  • Analyze potential business opportunities and evaluate their likelihood of success.

1.4 Research Your Idea


1.4 Research Your Idea

Students learn how and why to conduct surveys to test ideas for new products and services.


Students will:

  • Explain how surveys can be used to shape ideas for a product or service.

  • Develop a survey to gather information about a product idea.

  • Analyze survey results and determine how to adjust plans based on findings.

2.1 Planning


2.1 Planning

Students learn about the planning function of management: the setting of objectives, determining a course of action to accomplish those objectives, and the importance of critical thinking and SMART decision making.


Students will:

  • Describe the four functions of organizational management.

  • Explain the management function of planning.

  • Use a process to plan and implement a course of action with the decision-making process.

2.2 Organizing


2.2 Organizing

Students learn about the organizing function of management and how to use a process to identify, classify, and assign activities. They learn how to use an organizational chart to outline roles and responsibilities. Students apply the organizing process to a real-life situation.


Students will:

  • Explain the management function of organizing.

  • Use a process to organize activities and resources to carry out organizational goals.

  • Manage and coordinate work teams.

2.3 Leading


2.3 Leading

Students learn about the leading function of management and how effective leading requires managers to motivate their employees to contribute toward the goals of the organization.


Students will:

  • Explain the management function of leading.

  • Differentiate between leading and managing.

  • Identify the leadership and communication style most appropriate for specific situations.

2.4 Controlling


2.4 Controlling

Students learn about the controlling function of management and how to use a process to establish objectives and monitor performance. They learn about different types of controls that managers can use to prevent and correct problems.


Students will:

  • Explain the management function of controlling.

  • Describe the relationship of the controlling function to the other management functions.

  • Use feedforward control, concurrent control, and feedback control to prevent and address problems.

3.1 Marketing Concept and Functions


3.1 Marketing Concept and Functions

Students learn the seven functions of marketing and their purpose of satisfying customer needs and wants while generating sales and profits for a company.


Students will:

  • Describe the seven functions of marketing.

  • Explain how a company might use the seven functions of marketing to support its activities.

3.2 Consumer Behavior


3.2 Consumer Behavior

Students learn how marketers identify a target market and research the characteristics of that group. They learn about the four factors that affect consumer behavior and develop a marketing message to address the relevant factors for a given product.


Students will:

  • Identify a target market for a product and determine how best to reach it.

  • Examine theories of behavior and the four factors that affect consumer behavior.

  • Conduct market research into the social factors and buying decision of teens.

3.3 Introduction to the Marketing Mix


3.3 Introduction to the Marketing Mix

Students learn about the marketing strategies known as the marketing mix and how businesses use the Four Ps (product, place, price, and promotion) when deciding how to bring a product or service to the market.


Students will:

  • Describe the relationship of marketing to the Four Ps.

  • Identify a product and use the Four Ps framework to bring that product to the market.

  • Present approaches to the marketing mix.

3.4 Marketing Data


3.4 Marketing Data

Students learn how companies acquire valuable data from surveys and interviews, sales figures, and click-through rates on interactive ads. They analyze data and use it to make a variety of marketing decisions for a company.


Students will:

  • Explain how companies gather information, including the use of digital media.

  • Identify ways that companies can use data to inform the Four Ps.

  • Analyze data and use it to make marketing decisions.

4.1 Accounting Basics


4.1 Accounting Basics

Students learn about the importance of accounting and examine three types ofaccounting: financial, forensic, and project. Students learn what assets, liabilities, and equity are and use the accounting equation.


Students will:

  • Explain what accounting is and describe the skills and requirements for some careers in the accounting profession.

  • Define asset, liability, and equity.

  • Recognize and use the accounting equation.

4.2 Accounting Cycle


4.2 Accounting Cycle

Students learn how accounting events are recorded and processed during an accounting cycle. They learn how transactions are recorded twice in double-entry accounting to keep the accounting equation in balance.


Students will:

  • List the steps in the accounting cycle.

  • Recognize a financial transaction that should be recorded.

  • Explain the relationship between the accounting equation and double-entry accounting.

4.3 Accounting Principles


4.3 Accounting Principles

Students learn about the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) that guide accounting activity and financial reporting. They evaluate a company's performance based on a financial statement. Students also practice using the double-entry method of bookkeeping to create a balance sheet.


Students will:

  • Explain what the Generally Accepted Accounting Procedures (GAAP) is and why it is important.

  • Evaluate companies' performance based upon information from their financial statements.

  • Use the double-entry bookkeeping method to credit and debit accounts.

4.4 Financial Statements


4.4 Financial Statements

Students learn about the information that financial statements provide about the activities of a company and the risks it faces and how this information helps owners and investors make better decisions. They practice creating a balance sheet for business.


Students will:

  • Compare and contrast balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow reports.

  • Prepare a balance sheet.

    Analyze a company's current financial situation using its financial statement.

Case Study: Goal Cascading

Students learn the difference between responsibility and accountability for individuals and for businesses. Students examine a scenario in which a business looks for ways to engage employees in its goal of helping the community. Students use a goal cascading matrix to establish goals for workgroups and individuals within the business to help employees see and understand the larger goals and their role in accomplishing them.